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fluoride sources and functions

(PubMed), 25. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:1099-1124. Estimated drinking water fluoride exposure and risk of hip fracture: a cohort study. Izuora K, Twombly JG, Whitford GM, Demertzis J, Pacifici R, Whyte MP. At usual intake levels, fluoride does not accumulate in soft tissue. 2013;41(6):395-397, 400-394. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010. Diabetes Care. Fluoride-Helps reduce incidence of tooth decay. A meta-analysis of 11 controlled studies, including 1,429 participants, found that fluoride treatment resulted in increased BMD at the lumbar spine but was not associated with a lower risk of vertebral fractures (27). Although we encourage you to click on those ads that interest you, providing ad space for the sake of revenue is by no means an endorsement of any product or service, unless the endorsement is specifically stated. (8% AI) Nutrition Facts for Orange … 2012;120(10):1362-1368. (National Academy Press). Fluoride consumed in water appears to have a systemic effect in children before all teeth have erupted—typically through 12 years of age. (PubMed), 11. The most severe form of skeletal fluorosis is known as "crippling skeletal fluorosis," which may result in calcification of ligaments, immobility, muscle wasting, and neurological problems related to spinal cord compression. US Department of Health and Human Services Federal Panel on Community Water Fluoridation. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride. (PubMed), 29. 54th ed. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:44. It is also a dose dependent condition, with higher fluoride intakes being associated with more pronounced effects on the teeth. Because data were insufficient to establish a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI) levels were set based on estimated intakes that have been shown to reduce the occurrence of dental caries most effectively without causing the unwanted side effect of tooth enamel mottling known as dental fluorosis (0.05 mg/kg of body weight) (7; Table 1). Another meta-analysis of 67 placebo-controlled trials conducted in children and adolescents demonstrated a 23% reduction in decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces on mixed and permanent dentitions with toothpastes containing at least 1,000 ppm of fluoride. Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. A recent meta-analysis of fluoride interventions in children and adolescents (up to 16 years of age) found that the application of fluoride varnish for at least one year was associated with a 37% reduction in decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces in decayed tooth surfaces of primary teeth; the anti-caries effect on the permanent teeth corresponded to a 43% decrease compared to no treatment or placebo (17). The US Department of Health and Human Services has recently recommended that the optimal concentration in drinking water be set at 0.7 ppm (see Safety) (6). Linus Pauling Institute 2007;92(7):2446-2452. Drinking water fluoridation: bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence. It requires knowledge of the fluoride concentration of local drinking water, as well as other possible sources of fluoride intake. [Web page] Available at: http://www.epa.gov/dwstandardsregulations/fluoride-risk-assessment-and-relative-source-contribution. Several other studies have reported similar findings, with most bottled waters relatively low in fluoride, but a few in the optimal range or higher (41-43). Implant Maintenance{{more}} Since well water can vary greatly in its fluoride content, people who consume water from wells should have the fluoride content of their water tested by their local water district or health department. Fluoride is toxic when consumed in excessive amounts, so concentrated fluoride products should be used and stored with caution to prevent the possibility of acute fluoride poisoning, especially in children and other vulnerable individuals. Children under the age of six years who ingest more than two or three times the recommended fluoride intake are at increased risk of a white speckling or mottling of the permanent teeth, known as dental fluorosis. *The lower value is for infants up to 6 mos., higher value is for infants up to a year old.† The first value is for children 1-3 with the amount increasing until age 18.# Adequate Intake (AI) is the average amount a healthy person consumes; no RDA established. Linus Pauling Institute Fluoride--essential or just beneficial. Some health experts do not consider it an essential mineral, because it is not required for growth and development. Osteoporos Int. Originally written in 2001 by: The protective effect of fluoridated agents against dental erosion has mainly been observed in in vitro studies (reviewed in 19). Public Health Reports. J Acad Nutr Diet. Sowers M, Whitford GM, Clark MK, Jannausch ML. (PubMed), 37. (PubMed), 20. J Bone Miner Res. Prevention of dental cavities; Helps maintain teeth and bone health, [Infants: 0.01-0.5 mg][Children: .7-3 mg] [Men: 4 mg] [Women: 3 mg], Discoloration of teeth SEVERE: Fluorosis. Liability for individual actions or omissions based upon the contents of this site is expressly disclaimed. Epidemiological investigations of patterns of water consumption and the prevalence of dental caries across various US regions with different water fluoride concentrations led to the development of a recommended optimum range of fluoride concentration of 0.7-1.2 milligrams/liter (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm); the lower concentration was recommended for warmer climates where water consumption is higher, and the higher concentration was recommended for colder climates. Additionally, sufficient calcium and vitamin D must be provided to support fluoride-induced bone formation. 21. Other beverages with a high amount of fluoride include teas and grape juice. 2006;137 Suppl:14S-20S; quiz 38S. 1999;48:933-940. Intake is less than 1 mg/day in non-fluoridated areas (2). Fluoride is considered a trace element because only small amounts are present in the body (about 2.6 grams in adults), and because the daily requirement for maintaining dental health is only a few milligrams a day. Balena R, Kleerekoper M, Foldes JA, et al. 1996;127(7):895-902. Moderate dental fluorosis is characterized by mottling and mild staining of the teeth, and severe dental fluorosis results in marked staining and pitting of the teeth. Yet, recent randomized studies have shown that the risk of fractures remained unchanged whether treatments include fluoride, antiresorptives, or both (32, 33).

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